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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) describes a clinical syndrome associated with shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. Originally known as Pick’s disease, the name and classification of FTD has been a topic of discussion for over a century.  The current designation of the syndrome groups together Pick’s disease, primary progressive aphasia, and semantic dementia as FTD.  Some doctors propose adding corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy to FTD and calling the group Pick Complex.  These designations will continue to be debated.  As it is defined today, the symptoms of FTD fall into two clinical patterns that involve either (1) changes in behavior, or (2) problems with language.  The first type features behavior that can be either impulsive (disinhibited) or bored and listless (apathetic) and includes inappropriate social behavior; lack of social tact; lack of empathy; distractability; loss of insight into the behaviors of oneself and others; an increased interest in sex; changes in food preferences; agitation or, conversely, blunted emotions; neglect of personal hygiene; repetitive or compulsive behavior, and decreased energy and motivation.  The second type primarily features symptoms of language disturbance, including difficulty making or understanding speech, often in conjunction with the behavioral type’s symptoms.  Spatial skills and memory remain intact.  There is a strong genetic component to the disease; FTD often runs in families.

Treatment

No treatment has been shown to slow the progression of FTD. Behavior modification may help control unacceptable or dangerous behaviors.  Aggressive, agitated, or dangerous behaviors could require medication.  Anti-depressants have been shown to improve some symptoms.

Prognosis

The outcome for people with FTD is poor.  The disease progresses steadily and often rapidly, ranging from less than 2 years in some individuals to more than 10 years in others.  Eventually some individuals with FTD will need 24-hour care and monitoring at home or in an institutionalized care setting. 

Research

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research related to FTD in laboratories at the NIH, and also support additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. 

View a list of studies currently seeking patients.

View more studies on this condition.

Read additional information from Medline Plus.

Organizations

National Institute on Aging (NIA)

National Institutes of Health, DHHS
31 Center Drive, Rm. 5C27 MSC 2292
Bethesda, MD 20892-2292
Tel: 301-496-1752 800-222-2225 TTY: 800-222-4225

Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD)

Nonprofit organization that promotes and funds research into finding the cause and cure for frontotemporal degeneration, also called frontotemporal dementia (FTD); provides information, education, and support to those affected by FTD and their caregivers; and sponsors professional health education programs related to FTD.

Radnor Station Building #2 Suite 320
290 King of Prussia Road
Radnor, PA 19087
Tel: 267-514-7221 866-507-7222

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