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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Cephalic Disorders

Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to or abnormal development of the budding nervous system. Most cephalic disorders are caused by a disturbance that occurs very early in the development of the fetal nervous system. Damage to the developing nervous system is a major cause of chronic, disabling disorders, and sometimes death in infants, children, and even adults. Cephalic disorders may be influenced by hereditary or genetic conditions or by environmental exposures during pregnancy (e.g., medication taken by the mother, maternal infection, exposure to radiation). Some cephalic disorders occur when the cranial sutures (the fibrous joints that connect the bones of the skull) join prematurely. Understanding the normal development of the human nervous system may lead to a better understanding of cephalic disorders.

Treatment

Treatments for cephalic disorders depend upon the particular type of disorder. For most cephalic disorders, treatment is only symptomatic and supportive. In some cases, anticonvulsant medications shunts, or physical therapy are appropriate.

Prognosis

The degree to which damage to the developing nervous system harms the mind and body varies enormously. Many disabilities are mild enough to allow those afflicted to eventually function independently in society. Others are not. Some infants, children, and adults die; others remain totally disabled; and an even larger population is partially disabled, functioning well below normal capacity.

Research

Scientists are rapidly learning how harmful insults, a critical nutritional deficiency, or exposure to an environmental insult at various stages of pregnancy can lead to developmental disorders. Research projects currently underway include a study to evaluate increased risk of neural tube defects and various other congenital malformations in association with environmental and occupational exposure to pesticides. Scientists are also concentrating their efforts on understanding the complex processes responsible for normal early development of the brain and nervous system and how the disruption of any of these processes results in congenital anomalies such as cephalic disorders. Currently, researchers are examining the mechanisms involved in neurulation -- the process of forming the neural tube. Investigators are also conducting a variety of genetic studies. Understanding how genes control brain cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and death, and how radiation, drugs, toxins, infections, and other factors disrupt these processes will aid in preventing many congenital neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the addition of folic acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Therefore, it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily.

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Organizations

Birth Defect Research for Children, Inc.

Non-profit organization that offers parents and expectant parents information about specific birth defects, their causes and treatments, support group referrals, and parent matching services. Provides information about environmental exposures that may be associated with birth defects. Sponsors the National Birth Defect Registry, a research project that collects data on birth defects and prenatal/lpreconceptual exposures of mothers and fathers.

976 Lake Baldwin Lane
Suite 104
Orlando, FL 32814
Tel: 407-895-0802

March of Dimes

Works to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects and infant mortality through programs of research, community services, education, and advocacy.

1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Tel: 914-997-4488 888-MODIMES (663-4637)
Fax: 914-428-8203

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)

Federation of voluntary health organizations dedicated to helping people with rare "orphan" diseases and assisting the organizations that serve them. Committed to the identification, treatment, and cure of rare disorders through programs of education, advocacy, research, and service.

55 Kenosia Avenue
Danbury, CT 06810
Tel: 203-744-0100 Voice Mail 800-999-NORD (6673)
Fax: 203-798-2291

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