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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Arachnoiditis

Arachnoiditis describes a pain disorder caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surround and protect the nerves of the spinal cord.  The arachnoid can become inflamed because of an irritation from chemicals, infection from bacteria or viruses, as the result of direct injury to the spine, chronic compression of spinal nerves, or complications from spinal surgery or other invasive spinal procedures.  Inflammation can sometimes lead to the formation of scar tissue and adhesions, which cause the spinal nerves to “stick” together. If arachnoiditis begins to interfere with the function of one or more of these nerves, it can cause a number of symptoms, including numbness, tingling, and a characteristic stinging and burning pain in the lower back or legs.  Some people with arachnoiditis will have debilitating muscle cramps, twitches, or spasms.  It may also affect bladder, bowel, and sexual function.  In severe cases, arachnoiditis may cause paralysis of the lower limbs.

Treatment

Arachnoiditis remains a difficult condition to treat, and long-term outcomes are unpredictable.  Most treatments for arachnoiditis are focused on pain relief and the improvement of symptoms that impair daily function.  A regimen of pain management, physiotheraphy, exercise, and psychotheraphy is often recommended.  Surgical intervention is controversial since the outcomes are generally poor and provide only short-term relief.  Clinical trials of steroid injections and electrical stimulation are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments.

Prognosis

Arachnoiditis is a disorder that causes chronic pain and neurological deficits and does not improve significantly with treatment.  Surgery may only provide temporary relief.  The outlook for someone with arachnoiditis is complicated by the fact that the disorder has no predictable pattern or severity of symptoms.

Research

Within the NINDS research programs, arachnoiditis is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research.  NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as arachnoiditis. 

View a list of studies currently seeking patients.

View more studies on this condition.

Organizations

American Chronic Pain Association (ACPA)

Provides self-help coping skills and peer support to people with chronic pain. Sponsors local support groups throughout the U.S. and provides assistance in starting and maintaining support groups.

P.O. Box 850
Rocklin, CA 95677-0850
Tel: 916-632-0922 800-533-3231
Fax: 916-652-8190

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