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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Cushing's Syndrome

Cushing's syndrome, also called hypercortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder caused by chronic exposure of the body's tissues to excess levels of cortisol - a hormone naturally produced by the adrenal gland. Exposure to too much cortisol can occur from long-term use of synthetic glucocorticoid hormones to treat inflammatory illnesses. Pituitary adenomas (benign tumors of the pituitary gland) that secrete increased amounts of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone, a substance that controls the release of cortisol) can also spur overproduction of cortisol. Tumors of the adrenal gland and ectopic ACTH syndrome (a condition in which ACTH is produced by various types of potentially malignant tumors that occur in different parts of the body) can cause similar problems with cortisol balance. Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome include upper body obesity, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, backache, elevated blood sugar, easy bruising, and bluish-red stretch marks on the skin. In women, there may be increased growth of facial and body hair, and menstrual periods may become irregular or stop completely. Neurological symptoms include difficulties with memory and neuromuscular disorders.

Treatment

Treatment of Cushing's syndrome depends on the cause of excess cortisol. If the cause is long-term use of a medication being used to treat another disorder, the physician may reduce the dosage until symptoms are under control. Surgery or radiotherapy may be used to treat pituitary adenomas. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these may be used to treat ectopic ACTH syndrome. The aim of surgical treatment is to cure hypercortisolism by removing the tumor while minimizing the chance of endocrine deficiency or long-term dependence on medications.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved pasireotide diasparate, taken by injection, for individuals who cannot be helped through surgery.

Prognosis

The prognosis for those with Cushing's syndrome varies depending on the cause of the disease. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome can be cured. Many individuals with Cushing's syndrome show significant improvement with treatment, although some may find recovery complicated by various aspects of the causative illness. Some kinds of tumors may recur.

Research

NINDS supports research on Cushing's syndrome aimed at finding new ways to diagnose, treat, and cure the disorder.

View a list of studies currently seeking patients.

View more studies on this condition.

Organizations

Cushing's Support and Research Foundation

Provides information and support for Cushing's Disease and Cushing's Syndrome patients and their families and works to increase awareness and educate the public.

65 East India Row
Suite 22B
Boston, MA 02110-3389
Tel: 617-723-3674
Fax: same as phone

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)

National Institutes of Health, DHHS
31 Center Drive, Rm. 9A06 MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
Tel: 301-496-3583 TTY: 866-569-1162

Pituitary Network Association

International non-profit organization for patients with pituitary disorders, their families, loved ones, and the physicians and health care providers who treat them.

P.O. Box 1958
Thousand Oaks, CA 91358
Tel: 805-499-9973
Fax: 805-480-0633

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)

Federation of voluntary health organizations dedicated to helping people with rare "orphan" diseases and assisting the organizations that serve them. Committed to the identification, treatment, and cure of rare disorders through programs of education, advocacy, research, and service.

55 Kenosia Avenue
Danbury, CT 06810
Tel: 203-744-0100 Voice Mail 800-999-NORD (6673)
Fax: 203-798-2291

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