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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Apraxia

Apraxia (called "dyspraxia" if mild) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out skilled movements and gestures, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform them. Apraxia results from dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, especially the parietal lobe, and can arise from many diseases or damage to the brain.There are several kinds of apraxia, which may occur alone or together. The most common is buccofacial or orofacial apraxia, which causes the inability to carry out facial movements on command such as licking lips, whistling, coughing, or winking. Other types of apraxia include limb-kinetic apraxia (the inability to make fine, precise movements with an arm or leg), ideomotor apraxia (the inability to make the proper movement in response to a verbal command), ideational apraxia (the inability to coordinate activities with multiple, sequential movements, such as dressing, eating, and bathing), verbal apraxia (difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements), constructional apraxia (the inability to copy, draw, or construct simple figures), and oculomotor apraxia (difficulty moving the eyes on command). Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is a disease that causes a variety of types of apraxia, especially in elderly adults.

Treatment

Generally, treatment for individuals with apraxia includes physical, speech, or occupational therapy. If apraxia is a symptom of another disorder, the underlying disorder should be treated.

Prognosis

The prognosis for individuals with apraxia varies and depends partly on the underlying cause. Some individuals improve significantly while others may show very little improvement.

Research

The NINDS supports research on movement disorders and conditions such as apraxia. The goals of this research are to increase scientific understanding of these disorders, and to find ways to prevent, treat, and cure them.

View a list of studies currently seeking patients.

View more studies on this condition.

Organizations

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)

Professional, scientific, and credentialing association for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists. Offers public information about a wide range of speech, language, and hearing disabilities in both children and adults.

2200 Research Boulevard
Rockville, MD 20850
Tel: 800-638-8255
Fax: 301-571-0457

National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC)

8201 Corporate Drive
Suite 600
Landover, MD 20785
Tel: 301-459-5900/301-459-5984 (TTY) 800-346-2742
Fax: 301-562-2401

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