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NINDS Disorders is an index of neurological conditions provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. This valuable tool offers detailed descriptions, facts on treatment and prognosis, and patient organization contact information for over 500 identified neurological disorders.

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sometimes called Lou Gehrig's disease or classical motor neuron disease, is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.  In ALS, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons degenerate or die, ceasing to send messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, waste away, and twitch. Eventually the ability of the brain to start and control voluntary movement is lost.  Symptoms are usually first noticed in the arms and hands, legs, or swallowing muscles.  Muscle weakness and atrophy occur on both sides of the body.  Individuals with ALS lose their strength and the ability to move their arms and legs, and to hold the body upright. When muscles in the diaphragm and chest wall fail to function properly, individuals lose the ability to breathe without ventilatory support.  The disease does not affect a person's ability to see, smell, taste, hear, or recognize touch.  Although the disease does not usually impair a person's mind or personality, several recent studies suggest that some people with ALS may develop cognitive problems involving word fluency, decision-making, and memory.  The cause of ALS is not known, and scientists do not yet know why ALS strikes some people and not others.

Treatment

No cure has yet been found for ALS. However, the drug riluzole--the only prescribed drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat ALS--prolongs life by 2-3 months but does not relieve symptoms.  Other treatments are designed to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life for people with ALS.  Drugs are available to help individuals with spasticity, pain, panic attacks, and depression.  Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation may help to prevent joint immobility and slow muscle weakness and atrophy.  Individuals with ALS may eventually consider forms of mechanical ventilation (respirators).  The NeuRx Diaphragm Pacing System, which uses implanted electrodes and a battery pack to cause the diaphragm (breathing muscle) to contract, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to help certain individuals who have ALS and breathing problems.

Prognosis

Regardless of the part of the body first affected by the disease, muscle weakness and atrophy spread to other parts of the body as the disease progresses. Individuals have increasing problems with moving, swallowing, and speaking or forming words. Eventually people with ALS will not be able to stand or walk, get in or out of bed on their own, or use their hands and arms. In later stages of the disease, individuals have difficulty breathing as the muscles of the respiratory system weaken. Although ventilation support can ease problems with breathing and prolong survival, it does not affect the progression of ALS. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. However, about 10 percent of those individuals with ALS survive for 10 or more years.

Research

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. The goals of this research are to find the cause or causes of ALS, understand the mechanisms involved in the progression of the disease, and develop effective treatments.National ALS RegistryBoth the NINDS and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are committed to studies of disease patterns or risk factors among persons with ALS in order to better understand the causes of ALS, the mechanisms involved in the progression of the disease, and to develop effective treatments. In keeping with this goal, the CDC has launched the National ALS Registry, a program to collect, manage and analyze data about persons with ALS. The Registry includes data from national databases as well as de-identified information provided by persons with ALS. Persons living with ALS who choose to participate can add their information to the Registry by clicking the button below.

View a list of studies currently seeking patients.

View more studies on this condition.

Read additional information from Medline Plus.

Organizations

ALS Association

Nonprofit voluntary health organization dedicated to the fight against amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Funds global research and sponsors advocacy programs, a network of chapters, and certified centers and clinics located nationwide.

1275 K Street, N.W.
Suite 1050
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: 202-407-8580
Fax: 202-289-6801

Les Turner ALS Foundation

Supports medical research, patient services, and promotes awareness and education to find the cause(s), effective treatments, and ultimately, a cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

5550 W. Touhy Avenue
Suite 302
Skokie, IL 60077-3254
Tel: 888-ALS-1107 847-679-3311
Fax: 847-679-9109

Muscular Dystrophy Association

Voluntary health agency that fosters neuromuscular disease research and provides patient care funded almost entirely by individual private contributors. MDA addresses the muscular dystrophies, spinal muscular atrophy, ALS, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis, Friedreich's ataxia, metabolic diseases of muscle, and inflammatory diseases of muscle, for a total of more than 40 neuromuscular diseases.

3300 East Sunrise Drive
Tucson, AZ 85718-3208
Tel: 520-529-2000 800-572-1717
Fax: 520-529-5300

Project ALS

Not-for-profit organization that raises awareness and significant funds toward effective treatments and a cure for ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.

3960 Broadway
Suite 420
New York, NY 10032
Tel: 212-420-7382 800-603-0270
Fax: 212-420-7387

ALS Therapy Development Institute

Founded in 1999, the ALS Therapy Development Foundation is dedicated to discovering and developing treatments for ALS. The organization, which focuses on a concentrated drug discovery program for ALS, has collaborated with 28 for-profit companies and academic researchers to perform advanced investigations.

300 Technology Square
Suite 400
Cambridge, MA 02139
Tel: 617-441-7200
Fax: 617-441-7299

Prize4Life

P.O. Box 425783
Cambridge, MA 02142
Tel: 617-500-7527

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